LED Display Panels – Buyer’s Guide

Understanding LED Panels

Whether you’re purchasing for events or permanent displays, this guide is tailored to equip you with a fundamental understanding of LED panels. Filled with crucial insights, it aims to clarify the technology that powers these dynamic lighting solutions, detail the various types of LED panels available, and highlight their appropriateness for different settings. We’ll navigate through the essential features to consider, methods for assessing quality and performance, and strategies for seamlessly incorporating LED panels into your projects or spaces. Armed with this information, you’ll be positioned to make choices that enhance the effectiveness and appeal of your lighting arrangements. Embark on this journey to illuminate the possibilities with LED panels, and elevate the brilliance of your forthcoming ventures.

Looking to rent? A shorter rental guide is coming soon.

The Fundamentals

When considering the integration of an LED panel into your space or event, there are several fundamental questions you should start with to ensure you select the best option for your needs. These questions will guide you through the decision-making process, helping to narrow down the vast array of choices to the most suitable ones for your specific application.

Indoor or Outdoor Use: The first question to address is whether the LED panel will be used indoors or outdoors. Outdoor panels are designed to withstand various weather conditions and usually have higher brightness levels to remain visible in direct sunlight. Indoor panels, on the other hand, can have a finer pixel pitch for higher resolution at closer viewing distances since they don’t need to compete with natural light.

Size of the Screen: The size of the LED screen is crucial because it directly impacts the viewer’s experience. The dimensions of your screen should be based on the available space, the content being displayed, and how it fits within the overall design of the environment.

Content to be Displayed: Understanding the type of content you plan to display (e.g., static images, videos, text, or live feeds) influences the resolution and the type of LED panel you’ll need. High-definition or detailed content requires panels with a finer pixel pitch for clear and sharp images.

Minimum Viewing Distance: The distance from which the audience will view the screen affects your choice of pixel pitch. The pixel pitch is the distance between the centers of two adjacent pixels, measured in millimeters. A smaller pixel pitch allows for a clear image at a closer viewing distance, while a larger pixel pitch is suitable for viewers who will be further away.

Common Installations

Suspended Screen

LED panels can be suspended using hanging bars to a ceiling or temporary structure like trussing. The screen is assembled on the ground and then lifted up. If using this installation type, keep in mind that panels need to be accessible for maintenance in case of dead pixels or other hardware issues that can occur. This is the most common type of installation for events and shows.

Floor LED Screen

Floor installations at trade show booths often utilize leveling structures to ensure proper counterweight balance, facilitating a stable setup. While some panels can be installed without a leveling rack, this depends on the availability of other safety anchors and the specific characteristics of the panels themselves, ensuring a secure and balanced display.

In-Wall Screen

LED panels can be mounted on walls with either front or rear access options. Front access setups utilize panels designed for complete servicing from the front, typically through magnetic modules. Alternatively, if there’s access to the panel’s rear from a neighboring room, rear maintenance panels are viable and more cost-effective than their front access counterparts.

Freestanding Structures

LED screens can be mounted on self-standing structures, customizable in shape and size for both indoor and outdoor setups. Outdoor screens feature enhanced brightness to counteract ambient light. The choice of pixel pitch is influenced by the intended viewing distance and the nature of the displayed content, ensuring optimal clarity and impact.

LED Panel Components

LED Modules: Modules can be conveniently accessed and replaced either from the rear using screws or from the front with the aid of magnetic modules. This design ensures ease of use and quick repair, enhancing the panels’ versatility and efficiency for both temporary and permanent installations.

Power Supply: The power supply is responsible for distributing current to the four modules and the receiving card. For enhanced versatility, it is advisable to opt for power supplies that can accommodate a wide range of voltages, from 110V to 250V.

Receiving Card: It transforms the RJ45 video signal from the video controller into a format compatible with the LED modules. Typically, a higher pixel density necessitates the use of more advanced receiving cards.

Frame/Shell: The modules are securely fitted into frames made of either aluminum or steel. Encased within, you’ll find the power supply alongside the receiving/sending card. For panels with aluminum frames, side brackets are employed not only to seamlessly lock panels together but also to ensure their precise alignment.

LED Panels come in a wide range of sizes

Pixel Pitch: Smaller Pitch, Better Resolution

As previously noted, pixel pitch refers to the distance between LED lights on a panel, also known as SMD LEDs (Surface-Mounted Device LEDs). The smaller this distance, the higher the concentration of lights on a surface, enhancing the screen’s ability to display fine fonts and small details clearly at close range. This principle is evident in digital billboards along highways or LED traffic lights used for road work, which are tailored for specific content display purposes. Therefore, the nature of the content you intend to showcase is just as crucial as the size of the screen. Both factors play a pivotal role in determining the most appropriate LED panel for your needs, ensuring your message is delivered with maximum impact and clarity.

If you’re considering the advantages of a finer pixel pitch for its superior display quality, especially for close-range viewing, it’s indeed an attractive option. A finer pitch, meaning a smaller distance between the LEDs (e.g., P3 with a 3.9mm gap versus P4 with a 4.8mm gap), offers sharper images and clearer details, making it ideal for settings where viewers will be close to the screen.

However, the choice of pixel pitch should be balanced with cost considerations and the intended viewing distance. Finer pixel pitches come with a higher price tag due to the increased number of LEDs and the technology required to support them. From a significant distance, such as 100 feet away, the difference between a P3 and a P4 panel may not be discernible to the average viewer. This is a crucial consideration because it suggests that investing in a higher cost, finer pitch may not provide a noticeable benefit for viewers at a distance.

Your advisor at Tech Experience can provide tailored advice on the ideal pixel pitch for your specific screen needs. They will consider factors such as the content you plan to display, the viewing environment, distance, and your budget to recommend the most suitable option. This guidance ensures you invest wisely, balancing cost against the visual performance required for your application.

Brightness (Nits)

Brightness in LED panels is measured in nits, where 1 nit is equivalent to the luminance of one candle per square meter. For context, a typical home TV ranges from 250 to 500 nits, while commercial TVs are brighter, falling between 500 to 750 nits. Ever tried watching your home TV outdoors on a sunny day? If so, you’ve likely noticed it appears dim due to insufficient brightness and glare issues. Similarly, the effectiveness of LED panel brightness depends on overcoming ambient light.

Indoor LED panels usually offer a brightness of 800 to 1500 nits, whereas outdoor panels shine brighter, from 3500 to 6000 nits. For indoor panels placed behind glass but facing outdoors, they’re considered in the outdoor category concerning brightness needs. Fortunately, LED panel brightness is adjustable, making it easier to match the lighting to the time of day. Outdoor billboards, for example, often utilize timers or light sensors to modify screen brightness automatically, a practice mandated in many cities to curb light pollution.

Refresh Rate and Color Depth

The refresh rate of LED panels, measured in hertz (Hz), signifies the frequency at which the displayed image is refreshed every second. A higher refresh rate ensures smoother motion portrayal, crucial for dynamic content and reducing eye strain during prolonged viewing. It’s particularly important in scenarios like live events or sports broadcasts, where fast-moving visuals are common, providing a seamless viewing experience without flicker or blur.

Color depth, quantified in bits, indicates the number of bits used for each color component of a pixel. Common standards are 8-bit, 10-bit, and 12-bit, translating to 256, 1024, and 4096 levels per color, respectively. This means an 8-bit panel can display up to 16.7 million colors (256^3), a 10-bit panel up to 1.07 billion colors (1024^3), and a 12-bit panel can show over 68 billion colors (4096^3). Higher color depth enables a display to render more nuanced and vibrant images with smoother gradients, reducing banding and enhancing the realism of the content. This is particularly noticeable in high-quality video and graphics, where capturing the subtleties of light and shadow is essential for immersive experiences.


Black SMD (Surface-Mounted Device) LEDs in LED panels offer deeper blacks and higher contrast ratios than white SMD LEDs, enhancing visual depth and detail in the displayed content. This results in more vivid and dynamic images, especially beneficial in environments with varying light conditions. White SMD LEDs, while providing bright and vibrant displays, may not achieve the same level of contrast. The choice between black and white SMD LEDs depends on the specific requirements for image quality, ambient lighting conditions, and the intended application of the LED panel, balancing brightness and contrast for optimal viewing experiences.


COB (Chip on Board) and GOB (Glue on Board) LED panels represent two different packaging technologies for LEDs. COB technology mounts LED chips directly onto the substrate to create a single module, offering high brightness, enhanced light uniformity, and improved thermal performance. This results in a panel that’s efficient and capable of producing a more seamless light output. GOB technology, on the other hand, applies a protective glue over the LED chips, safeguarding them against dust, moisture, and physical impact. This enhances the durability and reliability of the panel, making GOB LED panels more suited to harsh or touch-intensive environments.


Content Playback Devices

Most Popular Playback Devices for LED Panels

All-in-One Media Players and LED Controllers

Devices such as the Novastar Taurus series facilitate both local and remote playback on LED panels through a user-friendly interface, akin to standard presentation software. They offer HDMI input and output capabilities, along with 2-channel stereo audio. Additionally, LED panel configuration can be performed wirelessly, enabling technicians to synchronize multiple panels to display a unified image seamlessly.

Professional Video Processors with LED Capabilities

For live events requiring a wide range of video inputs other than HDMI, appropriate hardware is required. These devices will take video inputs and send them to one or multiple screens. The Novastar VX Series stands out as an example of professional-grade Video Processors capable of handling this complexity, ensuring seamless video integration across your screens.


LED Panel Lifespan

LED panels typically last up to 100,000 hours but can vary, especially with frequent handling or outdoor use, leading to a shorter lifespan and more repairs. It’s advisable to purchase an extra 10%-15% of modules to account for batch-produced color variations, ensuring a seamless display. Modules for LED screens are produced in batches, leading to slight variations in color and brightness. Consequently, LED screens cannot be expanded later due to these inconsistencies.

If you are buying panels for tradeshow use or rental, panels equipped with corner protection can help protect lights during transportation and handling.

Transporting Your LED Panels

LED panels are securely transported in road cases, available in various sizes to fit 6-10 panels, depending on their dimensions. While custom cases can be locally made, buying them with the panels is cost-effective and ensures an optimal fit. These cases can also be customized with your business branding for a professional appearance.

Power Requirements

LED panels are linked together, with power supplies typically supporting 30-50A. For temporary installations, power supplies that handle a wide voltage range (110v-250v) are recommended. Power consumption is measured in watts per square meter, noting both an average and maximum consumption level. The latter represents the panel operating at full brightness with a white image, where red, blue, and green LEDs are all at 100%, consuming the most power. The consumption ranges from 150-600W per square meter, influenced by the panel’s brightness and pixel pitch.

Let’s take as an example 2.6mm indoor panels with 300W average and 600W max consumption.

Screen size: 3.5m x 2m = 7sqm

Avg power: 7 x 300W = 2,100W

Max power: 7 x 600W = 4,200W

It is common practice in electrical installation to keep 20% spare on all circuit breakers. Here are the revised requirements.

Avg power: 2,100 / 0.8 = 2,625W

Max power: 4,200W / 0.8 = 5,250W

Considering that a normal 120V 15A breaker can handle 1,800W, it would take 3 outlets to power 7sqm of these led panels.

Alternatively to using 15A breakers, we could use a single 30A/240V outlet.

30A x 240v = 7,200W

This is the versatility of wide range power supplies in temporary installations: the ability to use different voltage.

Other LED Panel Applications

LED Posters

LED posters offer an integrated solution for showcasing dynamic content, utilizing the same technology as LED panels but serving as an alternative to traditional display kiosks and commercial TV screens. These screens can also be linked together to create a larger image, making them versatile for applications such as retail environments, trade shows, and various indoor advertising opportunities.

Typical Pixel Pitch: 1.86mm-2.5mm

Transparent LED Panels

Transparent LED panels, allowing 50-70% light transmission, are perfect for retail window displays and trade shows. They offer a see-through design without sacrificing durability, and their cost is comparable to standard LED panels, making them an attractive option for dynamic advertising.

Typical Pixel Pitch: 3.9mm-7.8mm

LED Flooring

LED panels can be adapted for flooring display purposes, utilizing either plexiglass or GOB modules to withstand foot traffic. Additionally, they can be fitted with pressure-sensitive sensors, enabling dynamic feedback upon contact, enhancing interactive installations or displays.

Typical Pixel Pitch: 2.9mm-4.8mm

LED Film

Since 2023, LED film technology has seen a surge in popularity for its innovative application on glass, offering a premium and highly transparent display solution. Despite being the most expensive option for see-through displays, its unique aesthetic and functionality make it a sought-after choice.

Typical Pixel Pitch: 6mm-20mm

Mobile Solution

LED panels offer versatility for displaying content on the move or bringing a pre-installed screen to events. They can be affixed to a cube truck or trailer, with options for fixed positioning or mounting on hydraulics for adjustable height. For such applications, GOB panels are recommended due to their resilience against vibration and movement, minimizing the risk of LED damage.

Typical Pitch: 2.9mm-4.8mm

Next Generation Billboards

The next generation of LED billboards has captivated audiences worldwide, demonstrating the immense potential of LED panels when paired with tailored content designed for such screens. Utilizing both straight and curved panels, these billboards create a breathtaking effect, delivering both entertainment and advertising to millions of viewers.

Typical Pitch: 3.9-6mm